88 Ferrari

The history of creation and development of one of the most famous automotive brands. Explorer vc.ru studied the history of Ferrari, which was established in 1929 by Enzo Ferrari as the racing team, has managed to become one of the worlds biggest car brands for a long time was under the full control of Fiat, but in 2016 a newly gained independence.

Enzo Ferrari was born in 1898 in the Italian city of Modena. He was the second son of Alfredo Ferrari, who owned a small private workshop, which was engaged in the manufacture of metal parts. In his craft hes dedicated and Enzo. The childhood of the future of the entrepreneur took place in abundance.

Enzo lived above the shop and shared a room with his older brother, whose name was Alfredo. Since childhood, the future Creator of the Ferrari differed restlessness and activity. He didnt like school and all that goes with it.

As a boy he first dreamed of becoming a journalist, and then a racer. According to Enzo, the mastery of these professions are in no way dependent on success in school. The fascination of racing came from Ferrari in 1903, when the father purchased the car De Dion Bouton. In 1908, Alfredo Sr. brought sons to Bologna to watch the race, which made Enzo a lasting impression and a desire to associate with them.

Father Enzo wanted the son to become an engineer, but his grades left much to be desired. In 1914, Enzo Ferrari took a sports columnist in La Gazzetta dello Sport. He was involved in writing football reports. In 1916 his father died Enzo, and then on the front and his brother.

The family business after the death of Alfredo Sr. was closed to work during the war, a sports journalist Enzo could not, and therefore had a job as a instructor turning the case into the workshop fire station Modena. In 1917 he received the summons and Enzo. Ferrari was sent to the 3rd Alpine artillery division where he was assigned duties on Shoe mules.

A month after the beginning of the service Enzo fell ill with pleurisy. He underwent two operations, but the chances to survive were few. At some point the situation was so dire that nurses have stopped paying on Ferrari attention. That Enzo survived, was a miracle.

Until the end of the war, Ferrari was a driver of one of the employees of the quartermaster Department. After the war, Enzo returned to Modena to the mother. He had no family business, no education, nor any other privilege. The only thing left in the Ferrari from the former pre-war life, is the desire to achieve something. He tried to get a job at Fiat, but there he said that can not accept all demobilized from the Italian army.

In 1919, thanks to the patronage of the rider Sivocci Ferrari was employed in CN as a test drivers and the carriers. In the same year he first took part in the race. The first was a km long track in the locality of Monto, Piantonia. Ferrari finished twelfth.

The following steel Targa Florio race. Participation in them Ferrari remember a lot of problems. The Targa Florio was held on closed public roads, the track was extremely difficult. Ferrari managed to ride only a few miles when the car broke the gas tank.

In those days, mechanics were sent along with the riders. The post when Ferrari took Nino Beretta. To troubleshoot, it took him about 40 minutes. So Ferrari dropped to last place.

But this was only the beginning of adventure — delay at the start and bad the track was added another circumstance. The newly elected President of Italy, Victor Emmanuel Orlando spoke to the inhabitants of the town of Campofelice, through which passed route. The police blocked the road and did not allow a Ferrari, while Orlando never finished it, and man it was very wordy. Ferrari tried to squeeze out of his car all that he could, but to win hope not.

Moreover, while Enzo was getting to the finish line, there is not a correspondent nor the fans. Was only a COP with a watch that was supposed to record the time of arrival of the racers, does not comply with a 10-hour limit. The situation was complemented by the fact that the police are not given the due timer, and alarm clock without a second hand, and he couldnt even set the time properly.

Ferrari was furious and the next day came into the office Vincenzo Florio — organizer of the race. Ferrari spoke about Orlando, and about the alarm clock, and then demanded justice. Florio entered the position of young rider and instructed to include it in the list to get to the finish line, but in the last, ninth place.

After this race Ferrari left CN. Then he participated in several races in other cars, not yet met with employees of the company Alfa Romeo. Enzo ordered a Alfa Romeo G1, but the delivery was delayed. Ferrari went to the Manager of the company, which previously made an order, Giorgio Rimini. The latter pointed to the note in small print in the agreement States that the delivery will be made “as quickly as possible”.

For Ferrari this was a life lesson and subsequently, as an entrepreneur, he carefully studied the documents before them to sign. Rimini, despite the problems encountered, and Enzo made friends and it was his patronage was promoted to second driver of the company.

The successes in racing the Enzo was highly controversial. The first time he only won in 1923 at the races Circuito del Savio. After this victory, he met count Enrico Baracca, and later with his family. This marked the beginning of one of the most interesting legends in the history of Ferrari.

It is believed that the wife of count Paolina — advised Enzo on luck to depict a rearing black horse on his race car. The same symbol used Francesco Baracca — the son of Enrico and Paulina made famous by the Italian pilot during the First world war (in his squadron served brother Enzo — Alfredo).

Despite the popularity that Ferrari himself told this story, she has repeatedly been challenged, and its truthfulness has been questioned so far. The main argument is that Ferrari havent used a rearing horse as the logo until 1929. On the other hand, the Ferrari until that moment was not his own team.

In 20-ies of the race was no longer the sole interest of Ferrari. He was involved in the Affairs of Alfa Romeo, often went on business trips and tried to be part of the companys management. Ferraris career as a racer developed with varying degrees of success. He won some races in Italy, but among the best racers of the Alfa Romeo is not included.

Ferrari had a chance to become famous outside the country in 1924. Then he had to participate in the Grand Prix of France. Contrary to expectations, after the preliminary rounds Enzo felt a strong indisposition and refusing to participate went to Modena. From that moment, Ferrari has gradually become transformed from racer to businessman.

Ferrari already had in this area some achievements. In his native Modena, he created the firm Carrozeria Emiliana, which is engaged in the distribution of Alfa Romeo cars. Having relative freedom, it is the first time he began to recruit and lead. For racers reputation played into the hands of Enzo, and he perfectly coped with their duties. He was later appointed as a dealer in the Emilia-Romagna region, which also acted quite well.

In the race, he returned in 1927, winning the first race in Alessandria, and then in Modena. At the same time the audience first saw Peppino Verdelli — at that time the mechanics, Enzo, and in the next 40 years a Trustee of the entrepreneur. In 1927, launched the famous Mille Miglia race.

Ferrari was one of those who promoted their idea and assembled a team of Alfa Romeo to participate in them. The first race ended for Alfa Romeo in failure. But in the next three years of racing wins. In 1928 and 1929 success was provided by Giuseppe Campari, a close friend of Ferrari.

In 1929 the Enzo had the idea to create his own racing team. For this, he agreed with the manufacturers brothers Caniato and wealthy racer Mario of Tadini. The new team was registered as a joint stock company Societa Anonima Scuderia Ferrari. Enzo has invested 50 thousand liras, Caniato and Tadini — 130 thousand, and 5 thousand command received from a friend Ferrari — ferrucio Testi.

Ferrari have not severed the relationship with Alfa Romeo, but on the contrary, hastened to conclude an agreement for technical cooperation with a new team. The leadership of the automobile manufacturer considered that promotion due to Ferrari — not a bad idea, agreed, and even donated 10 thousand liras.

In exchange they received a share in the team. One of the terms of the agreement, Ferrari and Alfa Romeo was the opportunity to observe the production of supply the team cars and to make changes in design. Another sponsor was the manufacturer Pirelli, who invested 5 thousand liras.

It has become an important partner, given that his company has produced tires. And worth a mention in list of sponsors Bosch, which produces spark plugs, and Shell, specializing in fuel and oil. All of these steps from the Enzo was quite thoughtful. Ferrari knew the advantages provided by the sponsors and used for the benefit of his team.

The team Manager became Saracco Ferrari namesake Enzo. The debut on the Mille Miglia had bad luck — all three of her crew dropped out of the race to the finish line. In 1930 the team was joined by legendary driver Tazio Nuvolari. He won his first race and set a course record.

Ferrari, meanwhile, was engaged in the construction of new headquarters in Modena. Enzo went on to invite the famous Ferrari racers. In addition to the salary, they received a percentage of the victory and a share of the amount the team paid for their participation in the race. For every rider amount and the Supplement were different.

The last race in the life of Enzo Ferrari, was held in 1931 on the route of the Circuito delle Tre Provincie. The victory it celebrated Nuvolari, which became the standard Enzo racer. The latter is not interfered with Ferrari to look for new talents. The team has evolved, winning races and attracting famous athletes.

Including Italian racer Baroness Marie Antoinette, AVANZA, Piero Taruffi, Bakunin Boccaccini and other. Of course, Ferrari has happened and defeat, but the team already had a high reputation. In 1938, the history of Ferrari nearly broke. At this time, the management of Alfa Romeo decided to race without intermediaries and has redeemed all that belonged to the team. From the point of view of Finance Enzo Ferrari not suffered — he was offered the position of head of the racing Department of Alfa Corse and a high salary, and also agreed to provide some freedom of action.

Here are just accustomed to self-management of Ferrari was not a man aspiring to high office in the Alfa Romeo he wanted to lead the company. In 1939, Enzo left Alfa Romeo and founded Auto Avio Costruzioni. Under the agreement with Alfa Romeo, hes four years were not allowed to participate in the race to use the logo and the name of his old team.

At this time, Ferrari began to produce components for cars and machines. In December 1939, to Ferrari approached Alberto Ascari, who wanted the company developed for him and his other two sports car to race in the Mille Miglia in 1940. Enzo agreed, and his company has created two models of AAC Tipo 815.

They managed to prove themselves in the Mille Miglia, but because of the war, further development is not received. It AAC Tipo 815 is considered the first car designed and released by Ferrari. In 1942, the entrepreneur decided to move his workshop in Maranello, which seemed the safest place in Italy. Two hectares of land cost him 78 thousand, and 8 thousand more than he paid as tax.

On earth was built by the Ferrari factory. Unfortunately, in 1944 it was badly damaged by bombing. Immediately after the war in 1945, Ferrari announced to his agent Franco Cortese that he intends to stop the production of machine tools and to start production of sports cars.

The reaction Cortese was negative. He said that only a crazy person would throw such a profitable business, but a Ferrari on the idea not abandoned. He began to gather his former employees, known on the race team and the specialists from Alfa Romeo, trapped while not in the best condition.

The developed model, which became known as the Ferrari 125 S was presented in 1947. The engine is designed Gioachino Colombo. He was also responsible for creating the Ferrari 125 S, but in the process forced back to Alfa Romeo. To complete the development had the remaining engineers, among whom was Aurelio Lampredi.

Even before the release of the car to Ferrari came to Luigi chinettis. He was a big car dealer and was offered a partnership by the withdrawal of Ferrari on the U.S. market. If the release of the Ferrari 125 S was the beginning of an independent auto industry Ferrari, then in partnership with chinettis simplified to turn it into a international player.

Developing the Ferrari 125 S was completed six weeks before the start of the season in 1947, but had undergone a number of modifications just before the start of racing. The first race was held in Piacenza and was not successful for Ferrari, despite the fact that Enzo has estimated prospects of development of the car pretty high. Next race is in Rome, in which the pilot of Ferrari, Franco Cortese won.

Ferrari managed to return to the team Nuvolari, who won for the company a few races. In total, the first season of the Scuderia Ferrari has participated in 14 races, winning five. The success allowed the company to attract the attention of several wealthy people.

Among them, two Italian brothers of the Earl Bassana and Russian Prince Igor troubetzkoy. They ordered a new model Ferrari 166 Spyder Corsa. The car was produced from 1948 to 1949. In all there were 100 cars. Bassana and troubetzkoy bought the Ferrari 166 Spyder Corsa to participate in the competition.

So the Ferrari driver Trubetskoy Clemente Biondetti got the first international win at the car company — has won the Grand Prix of Stockholm. In 1948 there was another important event. Produced by the Ferrari factory in Maranello cars were the main source of income of the company. My role in this was played by their attractive appearance and active participation in the race.

In the same year, were presented two new models Ferrari 166 — 166 MM and 166 Inter. They both gained the popularity among the customers of the company. The main advantage was that these cars could not only ride in style through the streets of the city, but also to participate in races with a high enough level.

The number of Ferrari customers were large businesses, wealthy aristocrats and politicians. The first American to own a car company, was Briggs Cunningham, the son of a banker, a famous racing driver and designer. Assumed responsibility for distribution in the United States, chinettis perfectly coped with his work.

He himself was fond of racing and driving a Ferrari 166 MM won the race “24 hours of Le Mans”. The victory secured not only fame for himself, chinettis, but the huge popularity of the Ferrari. To the companys factory in Maranello was a pilgrimage of the rich and famous. They actively bought cars, and Ferrari on this excellent earning.

During the postwar 40 years the number of races in which the team participated, the company has grown steadily. In 1946 there were only fourteen, and three years later, this figure reached 48 races. Simultaneously, a growing number of cars. In 1950 hosted the first season of “Formula-1”.

Ferrari became the participant of the championship, but had some problems. It was clear that the engines of Colombo for the Grand Prix didnt fit. Enzo Ferrari decided to entrust the development of a new model of Aurelio Lampredi. This marked the beginning of the conflict between Ferrari and Colombo.

The latter even wanted to leave but Enzo did not agree. Colombo to 1950 worked on the development of models for series Grand Turismo and only in 1951 returned to Alfa Romeo. The first championship, “Formula 1” ended for Ferrari failure. The fact that early in the season develop Lampredi model was not yet ready and the team used the old design.

At the same time, Alfa Romeo has used its new car and left no chance to rivals. Some competition was able to provide only with the help of Ferrari 340 F1 with an engine capacity of 4.1 liters. It happened at the Grand Prix of Switzerland, but due to a failure of a racer to the finish line is not reached. The season ended quite optimistic — Lampredi introduced the Ferrari 375 F1 c engine of 4.5 liters, which secured second place at the Grand Prix of Italy.

Failure in the “Formula 1” does not change the approach Ferrari to advertising. He, unlike rivals from Alfa Romeo, said the team at various races, providing their brand advertising and higher sales.

The following season, Scuderia Ferrari spent much more confident. The team won the Grand Prix of great Britain, Italy and Germany, and in the overall standings Alberto Ascari took second place, behind the pilot, Alfa Romeo Juan Manuel Fangio. The entire second part of the season took place under the dominance of Ferrari. This resulted in an unexpected turn — Alfa Romeo decided to stop participating in the “Formula -1”.

In the end, Scuderia Ferrari had been the leader for two consecutive seasons. In 1952 he launched a legendary series of cars Ferrari 250. Like the preceding, it was developed for racing.

The first Ferrari 250 S was introduced in 1952, the same team has won it victory in the race Mille Miglia. Success has led to the fact that Ferrari has launched the model into serial production. A year later appeared the car Ferrari 250 MM, capable of speeds up to 250 km/h. In the same year was presented another model — Ferrari 250 GT Europa.

It was a touring car, capable of speeds up to 230 km/h. Interior decoration of wood and designed with qualities of speed made him one of the most elegant cars of the time. The company produced about 50 models of Ferrari 250 GT Europa. In the future, the line of Ferrari 250 got a big extension.

Among the best novelties introduced in 1956 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa. This car dominated the races in Le Mans and Sebring. The model could reach speeds of up to 259 km/h and the first in the history of the company got disc brakes. It was released only 40 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa.

Another famous model was the Ferrari GT California Spyder. The car was developed in two versions with different engine capacity and wheelbase. In total there were about a hundred. It is worth mentioning the Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta SWB. She has four times won the automobile Tour de France race.

Another representative of this family is the Ferrari 250 GT 2+2. This car became the first four-seater model of the company and is known for its mass — published a total of 957 copies.

In 11 years of this series was released about 2,5 thousand models, and they to this day are of particular interest to collectors. In the “Formula 1” Ferrari failed to win in the seasons 1954 and 1955 following the departure of Ascari. However Ferrari to retreat was not going and asked for help to Fiat. The management of the company responded and bought the property of the bankrupt Lancia team, and then handed it over to Scuderia Ferrari.

Enzo also got a Lancia chief designer, Vittorio Jano, engineers and pilots of this team. Ferrari decided to use the Lancia D50, reworking it in the Lancia Ferrari D50. In 1956, winning the League title returned to Juan Manuel Fangio. Collaboration with this legendary racer was a difficult.

Enzo Ferrari did not support the practice of appointing the first pilot of the team, and Fangio, being at that time a world star, expecting that they will receive appropriate honors. He won the championship for Ferrari, but Enzo the relationship did not work out, this resulted in care Fangio in Maserati 1957. This badly affected the results of Ferraris “Formula 1”.

In 1958 the championship team got Mike Hawthorne. 60 years remember the structural changes in Ferrari. The story about them is to start with the fact that in 1956, died the son of Enzo — Alfredo.

His death has caused a rethinking of the future Ferrari. In 1960, Enzo turned the company into a public Corporation. While about 40% of company-produced vehicles were exported to North America. Despite the fact that it brought a solid profit and allowed to engage in such favorite Ferrari race, he at that time had little interest in production issues.

In the early 60-ies of the Ferrari said that not against a big Corporation took over the management of factories, and he focused solely on racing. Such a move had several reasons. After the death of Alfredo, his mother and wife Enzo Laura was more than interested in the financial condition of the company and to appear in the headquarters of Ferrari.

Her actions annoyed the specialists, but the Ferrari did not take any action. All has ended with scandal. Laura during one of the visits, rushed into the Finance Director Ermanno Della Casa and accountant Dzhirolami Gardini.

At last she gave a few slaps, which resulted in the dismissal Gardini, Della Casa, and a number of employees of different levels. Complicated the situation is the fact that after a successful season of 1961 Ferrari, contrary to the expectations of employees Scuderia, did not increase their salaries. Moreover, the pilots of the company hill and ginther received an offer to extend the contract with a reduced salary.

The Enzo was his views on the situation and the salary he was raised only as a last resort. The staff imposed the idea that Italy is full of people willing to take their place. With the team Scuderia Ferrari wrote a letter which was signed by all the staff.

Enzo negotiations did not go. These incidents marked the beginning of the departure of key personnel. Some, including Della Casa, came back, and the other headed Gardini tried to create my own company.

In addition to care staff, Ferrari was not satisfied with the condition of the metallurgical industry of Italy. The company often faced problems in supplying the necessary parts. Not the last factor that forced Ferrari to think about selling their own business, became his age. At the time he was 63 years old, and over time it became harder to manage everything independently.

Complicated situation and the fact that after the death of his son worsened the relationship between the wife and the mother of Enzo, who never got along. They both insisted that Ferrari spent more time at home. In 1963 there was a concern who wants to buy Ferrari.

A potential buyer was Ford. American giant was willing to pay $18 million for a 90% stake in the company Enzo. Agree, the parties still failed due to the fact that the Americans have not agreed to the main condition of the agreement, Ferrari continues to monitor racing team.

The proposed Treaty had a very disloyal, according to Enzo, the point — any excess of the budget team in $250 thousand to be agreed with the management of Ford. This brought Ferrari out of himself, and he lashed insults to representatives of the American company. It turned into a huge scandal, and Henry Ford, Jr. canceled the deal.

In 1963, the team of John Surtees. He won for the Scuderia Ferrari “Formula 1” in 1964. Notable memories regarding the internal situation in Ferrari. Surtees was surprised that the main focus was Ferrari did not race cars for the “Formula 1”, and production sports cars. The company Surtees encountered opposition, which was headed by team Manager Eugenio Dragoni.

The apotheosis of steel race at Le Mans, which took place in 1966. They team Ford in response to failed talks and insults from Ferrari was going to put the Ferrari team in place. Before the start of the qualifying competition of the Surtees asked to show the best results.

He has achieved the goal, but then things took an unexpected turn. Dragoni took him out of the race, arguing that on the podium is the head of Fiat Gianni Agnelli, and he really wanted by his nephew Ludovico, Scarfiotti. The latter was a qualified pilot and has won including the “24 hours of Le Mans”, but much inferior to the Surtees. To win, Scarfiotti could not — Ford took the first three places. Frustrated by the situation Surtees left Ferrari.

At the end of 60 years Ferrari has faced financial difficulties. The company continued to produce cars but not the least actively participated in all kinds of races, where it was not so easy. In the “Formula 1” Ferrari team did not win until 1975. To understand how this fact affects the position of the company need to know that one of the competitors Ferrari — Maserati — barely broke even after one bad race, which was broken all four of her car.

Trying to save the company, Ferrari formed an Alliance with Fiat. Ferrari wanted to reduce the cost and increase the production volumes and for the first time in history was to use the conveyor, but the company was not confident that it will be able to produce a sufficient number of cars. With this purpose, and cooperation was established with Fiat, which produced engines for the Ferrari Dino.

In the product lines of both companies appeared the car of the Dino series. The name of the engine was given in honor of the deceased son of Enzo — Alfredo (Dino reduction from Almedina) who participated in its development. In 1969 cooperation between companies has reached a new level. Fiat has acquired 40% of Ferrari for $11 million with the condition that after the death of Enzo, she will be sold 50%.

A potential heir to the Ferrari at that time was considered to be his illegitimate son, Piero, but Enzo wasnt sure about his leadership qualities and ability to lead the company. It is because Pieros future only got 10% of Ferrari. Other points of the agreement was that Fiat were responsible for the production of Ferrari cars. Technical cooperation between the two companies became even closer, and Enzo Ferrari retained full control over the experimental shop and racing team.

In fact it was an improved version of the agreement with Ford. The achievements of the team until the mid 70-ies was very modest. In 1974 this resulted in the actual restart command. The chief pilot was Niki Lauda, who in 1975 won the “Formula 1”.

Further due to internal divisions the companys business went not very well, though it did not prevent the Laud to get the title for Ferrari in 1977. Cooperation with Laudau ended in 1977. In the late 60-ies and 70-ies the company has continued to expand the line Dino.

One of the most memorable models was released in 1969 Ferrari Dino 246 GT. She got the engine power to 195 horsepower. In 1974 started production quadruple Dino 308 GT4. The model was produced from 1974 to 1980. In total, there were 2826 produced cars.

Speaking of the 70s, the moves can not forget about the Berlinetta Boxer series. In 1971 he was presented the first model — Ferrari 365 GT4 BB. Used it engine Berlinetta Boxer had a capacity of 340 horsepower and a top speed stood at 304 km/h. In 1976 and 1982 there were two modifications of this model — Ferrari 512 BB 512BBi.

In the early 80-ies of the production Ferrari, controlled by Fiat, flourished. The company was producing about 40 cars a month. Ferrari thanks to such cooperation of the 700 employees of production was controlled by only 200. With them he worked on the development of models for the “Formula 1”.

However, a decade is having a bad. The team has not won a single championship in the “Formula 1”. The trend continued until 2000, while Michael Schumacher did not return the title to Ferrari. To Enzo Ferrari this period became a kind of retirement.

Thanks to an Alliance with Fiat he had much less to communicate with customers. Most of his time was occupied by the race, all his life used to be his favorite thing. Sports cars are the vision of its founder embodied in the Ferrari F-40.

It was released in 1987 and named in honor of the fortieth anniversary of the company. She had a top speed of 325 km/h. All of them were released 1315. F-40 was the last vehicle of the group, created during the life of Enzo Ferrari.

Another famous development of the 80-ies was the Ferrari Testarossa. Its production started in 1984. The model in 1989 was worth about $182 thousand and was subject to the company standard settings. Expensive, luxurious and fast. Given various modifications, for 12 years, was released about 10 thousand of these cars, and all were sold.

Enzo Ferrari died in 1988. He left behind one of the most famous automobile companies, which is almost entirely under the control of Fiat. Ferrari is considered one of the greatest figures of the automotive industry. The people who worked under the leadership of Enzo, think of him as an authoritarian leader, requiring employees absolute fidelity.

In the best periods of the history of Ferrari were one family, United by common goals. Often remember and avarice Enzo — employee benefits did not differ in the big sizes. Eminent persons concern attracted through the opportunity to work at the highest level.

Ferrari was very fond of the riders, but even they occasionally got it from Enzo. He could criticize riders for the mistakes, but never because of bad mood or other personal reasons. After the death of Enzo, his son Piero became the Vice-President of the company. The main leadership was concentrated in the hands of Fiat, and was soon followed by changes.

Ferrari finally abandoned the manual production. The company received a significant financial investment, and in 1989 changed its name to Ferrari S. p.A. In the late 80s and beginning of 90-ies of the Ferrari was going through hard times. So her transition to business-oriented Fiat came just in time.

In 1991, to restore the company to the position of President was assigned to Luca Cordero di Montezemolo. He was a capable leader, who had at the time, to work under the guidance of Enzo Ferrari. Di Montezemolo actively took up the case of making changes in all areas of the company. In particular, he invested $80 million in the modernization of production.

The car number was also revised. Due to changes in the customers got a wider selection of cars, which started with the cheapest Ferrari 355, which cost $160 thousand. Another success, di Montezemolo is considered to be hiring of Jean Todt in 1993.

He led the racing team of the company and, in addition, gave her regular victories in the Cup of designers, and even hired Michael Schumacher. In 1997 celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Ferrari received another reason to celebrate — its profit before tax reached $22 million with record sales of $598 million. In the same year poweruse in the ability of di Montezemolo manual Fiat gave Ferrari a 50% stake in Maserati. Two years later Ferrari got full control over a longtime rival.

Di Montezemolo successfully repeated the same path that was in the Ferrari, starting with the renovation of production. The companys factory was modernized, and the staff working on the Assembly line, retrained or replaced. Changes were made in the companys portfolio.

In total, Maserati has invested $120 million. All this has helped the company in 1999 to sell 1500 cars, which is three times more than in 1998. Late for Maserati built a new plant, and she transformed into a luxury car manufacturer. Another important direction of activities of Ferrari began selling licenses to manufacture goods under the brand of the company.

Among the licensed products was Ferrari watches, perfumes, clothing, video games and toys. This direction has brought about 10% of the companys profit in 1999. At the same time, the company achieved record sales of 3,800 vehicles. Revenue this year totaled $760,8 million.

Beginning of 2000-ies was for the company good. First, its leadership was able to significantly increase production due to increasing demand. In 2002 was released the Ferrari Enzo. Model with a maximum speed of 350 km/h was produced from 2002 to 2004. In total, there were produced 4 thousand models.

In 2004, di Montezemolo became President of Fiat, and as Executive Director of Ferrari took Jean Todt. In 2005, separated from Ferrari Maserati. The period under the leadership of Todt as the beginning of 2000-ies, in the companys history information, not so much. The fact that Fiat-owned company was not an independent player and was known only by the production of cars and participation in “Formula-1”.

Todts role in the success of the team in the “Formula-1” deserves a special mention. From 2000 to 2004, Scuderia Ferrari have won Championships at the expense of the Duo of Schumacher and Barrichello, but it was Todt became one of the initiators of the introduction of “team tactics”. Her idea is that one of the drivers sacrifices his position in favor of teammate. Approach, despite its effectiveness, was considered controversial and a matter of controversy still.

In the same year the crisis began, which negatively affected the companys sales. The problems became noticeable at the end of 2009 — sales decreased to 6250 models. For a long time the difficulty is not delayed, the subsequent years saw an increase of sales.

This is largely due to the fact that customers are the most wealthy part of the population that suffered from the crisis much less than the others. In 2009, the companys management reshuffle were. Instead Todt, the Executive Director was the Amedeo Felisa. The President of the company remained di Montezemolo.

Since 2008, formula Ferrari team finally lost its dominant position and since then have not won a single championship. In 2012 was presented the Ferrari F12 Berlinetta. The design of this supercar was involved in Ferrari and Pinifarina design company. The F12 Berlinetta is capable of speeds up to 340 km/h.

In 2015, was presented version of the F12 Berlinetta — F12tdf. The name was chosen in honor of the Tour de France, which the team won in 1966. The production model on the market in 2016, was dedicated to the 50 anniversary of this victory.

In comparison with the base model she got a number of differences in design, greater maneuverability. The series was limited, the company issued a total of 799 models. Cost was €350 thousand. F12tdf in addition, the company has acquired a number of other modifications F12 Berlinetta.

In 2013 appeared the first hybrid car LaFerrari. The maximum speed of the model is 350 km/h. Its value amounted to more than €1.3 million.

Released was only 499 models of LaFerrari. 2019 Ferrari plans to produce only hybrid cars. In 2014, the office of the President of the company left di Montezemolo, it was replaced by Sergio Marchionne. In 2016, your post left and Felisa, causing the position of Executive Director also moved to Marchionne.

Marchionne also heads Fiat, although he admits that Ferrari is his favorite company. In 2015 there is information that Ferrari will become a separate company and will gain independence from Fiat. The first step for this was Ferraris IPO in the same year. The company raised approximately $893 million.

Ferrari gained independence in 2016. Despite all the changes, 10% of Ferrari are still owned by Piero Ferrari. The largest shareholder of Ferrari is controlled by the Agnelli family investment company Exor. She owns 22.9 per cent of the Ferrari shares, the remaining shares are in free float.

In 2016, the profit of the company amounted to €400 million. Marchionne aims to increase revenue from non-core products under the Ferrari brand. Something similar already did di Montezemolo, but the approach Marchionne promises to be even more global.

Including development in the direction of the Board of Directors of the company were invited Delphine Arnault, Executive Vice-President of LVMH. Marchionne also plans to increase the number of theme parks of the company. One of the latest models of the company — Ferrari Superfast 812 submitted in 2017. She got an engine with 800 horsepower, the maximum speed more than 340 km/h, as well as a number of technical innovations.

Well-known fact that Ferrari could produce and sell more cars, but is sacrificing this opportunity for the sake of exclusivity. Marchionne is actively promoting the view concerning the need to increase production. Partly this is related to the Ferrari plans from 2019 to produce only hybrid cars.

Marchionne sees several other benefits from such changes. Including the increase in fuel economy and the speed of the cars.

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