The Banks liquidity is its ability to meet their commitments, i.e. to repay the loans to other organizations, to pay interest to depositors to return their deposits. If the liquidity is too high, the falling income of the Bank because the money will not be embedded. If it is too low, then at some point the Bank may simply not cope with their obligations. For example, if the majority of depositors will demand to return money, but the organization simply will not appear in sufficient quantity. The Central Bank controls the ability of banks to repay liabilities.
New liquidity ratios. If the Bank violates, it may be fined. As an analyst BKF Maxim Osadchy, a violation of regulations is the most obvious sign that the Bank ran into difficulties. The Bank continues to be responsible for the funds of depositors and card holders even in the event of bankruptcy, so the mutual obligations between clients and the Bank are saved. If the Bank limits the customer access to his funds, the customer may submit a complaint to the Bank in the Central Bank, says the analyst of group of companies “FINAM” Bogdan Zvarich.
After that the CB makes a decision. To save the Bank from bankruptcy, the Central Bank may appoint sanitation, i.e. financial recovery. It holds, usually another Bank or Agency on insurance of contributions (ASV) on own funds. In this case, individuals and legal entities continue to be serviced by their Bank, their savings are fully preserved.
During the renovation they may be frozen for any period, however, the investor does not lose money. If the Bank still has your license revoked, it starts its liquidation. From that moment clients stop paying interest on deposits and return the money they got through the DIA. In this case, if the person was a Bank loan, he is still obligated to pay, but then also transferred it to the DIA. The Agency on insurance of contributions — the state Corporation that was established in 2004.
It is engaged in the liquidation of troubled banks and pay depositors money, if an accident occurred. These cases include two. Or revocation of license of Bank of Russia, or the moratorium on satisfaction of creditors claims. A moratorium of three months the Central Bank, for example, was introduced in December 2015 for “Vneshprombank”. However, a month later lost his license.
After an insured event, the Bank shall within seven days should pass in the DIA list of contributors. During next weeks DIA is obliged to publish information on where, how and when depositors can apply for the refund. To pay the DIA might attract agent banks. Most of the DIA form a Fund contributions of banks. The Agency also receives profit from the investment of funds.
But last year, after many broken banks of the DIA was not enough. Twice the organization has applied for a multi-billion dollar loans to the Bank of Russia. Your money — regardless of whether it was the interest or the funds on the payroll card, can you return all physical persons, including individual entrepreneurs. With the exception of a few categories. To qualify for a refund can not, for example, people who opened an account at branches outside of Russia, or if it is an electronic wallet.
Customers of the failed Bank can count on 100% of the amount, if it does not exceed 1.4 million rubles. To get one, a person needs only the statement and the identity document on which the account was opened in the Bank. Pay the money in three days, but not earlier than two weeks after the Bank lost the license. Funds can pay cash, or transferred to another card. If the person held funds in foreign currency, they will return in rubles — at the exchange rate set by the Central Bank on the day of revocation of the license of the Bank.
Among applicants for payments have priority. First refund money to individuals who held accounts (1.4 million rubles), as well as those whose payments are associated with causing of harm to life or health. Secondly, the Deposit insurance Agency pays the creditors, that require to pay severance pay and pay for work under an employment contract. Everyone else, including legal entities, fall within the third phase. DIA starts paying the lenders from next turn on only when previous fully reimbursed funds.
If a queue is not enough money, then the creditors are paid in proportion to the amounts that they require. As they say “Banks.ru”, current accounts of legal entities do not fall under the public insurance system. Therefore, in order not to lose money, it is advisable to bring them out as soon as the Bank began to experience difficulties. Previously, the business Ombudsman Boris Titov stated that it is necessary to introduce a Deposit insurance system for legal entities, because many companies are suffering because of the withdrawal of licenses from banks. The source material — the edition “the Paper”.