Initially, Silicon valley was known as the “Valley of Hearts Delight” (the literal translation is “valley of hearts delight”). In the U.S., it was famous for its fruit orchards and flowers, and was also the main exporter of dried prunes. In the mid-19th century it housed the first research laboratory for military and commercial shipbuilding. Here began to develop the Telegraph and the radio industry. In 1909, the first radio broadcast from San Jose.
In 1909 Cyril Ewell along with his team created the first American arc transmitter. The U.S. Navy played an important role in the development of the Valley. In 1933, the Navy acquired Moffettfield — a plot of land in Sunnyvale for service of military airships. Soon the territory around San Francisco became a center for the development of the aerospace industry. An office in Silicon valley was opened by the Lockheed company.
In 1939 was opened the research center Ames — he served as a laboratory for the National Committee on Aeronautics. In 1949 it opened the largest wind tunnel. Often the role of the spiritual founder of Silicon valley is credited to Dave Packard and William Hewlett. The founders of Hewlett Packard started a company in his garage — it is engaged in the production of oscilloscopes, and during the Second world war radars and developments for artillery. At that time the term “computer” meant a machine called Eniac — room with computers, which was used to decrypt enemy codes during the Second world war.
The emergence of the computer industry in the form in which it is known today, began with William Shockley. A young scientist who worked in Bell laboratories, invented the transistor — the main component of modern computer technology. However, the invention is not impressed the management. Then he took a small loan and founded Shockley Semiconductor Labs is the worlds first company to produce transistors from silicon. He decided to open an office in mountain view because I wanted to be closer to his ailing mother.
Unfortunately, the first office Shockley Semiconductor Labs was later converted into a fruit and vegetable base, and then destroyed. Shockley tried to poach his former colleagues from Bell. However, no one wanted to move to the other end of the country (Bell laboratory was located on the East coast of the USA).
The inventor was able to find employees at Stanford University. Shockley invited the students to his work, saying that they can help the development of the new region of California. Thus Shockley scored in the company of young scientists. However, he was a bad Manager and constantly changed business development strategy. In the end he abandoned the idea of the development of silicon transistors.
After that, eight employees left Shockley — the inventor called them the “traitorous eight” and publicly stated that they will never be able to become successful. The departed employees, along with businessman Sherman Pancaldo the founders of the Fairchild Semiconductor company, which continued to do silicon transistors. Their small office is located in Palo Alto. The company was able to receive some credits for the development of more compact models of computers. When in 1957 the USSR launched its first artificial satellite, Fairchild Semiconductor has contacted NASA with a request to create a software component for the first flight to the moon.
Later all the participants of the “traitorous eight” founded the largest companies in Silicon valley. In 1968 Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce opened from Intel headquarters in Santa Clara. Others started companies such as AMD and NVIDIA. In 1969, the research Institute of Stanford University has become home to ARPANET — the first attempt of the Ministry of defense for the establishment of a global computer network.
In 1970 Xerox opened the Xerox PARC laboratory lab in Palo Alto. It was invented many key industry developments — laser printers, computer graphics and graphical user interface. For the first time the name “Silicon valley” was used by journalist Don Hilera in the report on the development of the semiconductor industry. The name so stuck that it has been preserved over the Valley and after she ceased to be the main supplier of silicon components.
In 1972 financiers Eugene Kleiner and Tom Perkins, the founders of the first Silicon valley venture capital company for young entrepreneurs. In 1971, Intel presented the Intel 4004 — it was a relatively cheap and reliable. Two years later, the company released the Intel 8080, which became a hit among fans of computer technology of those times. In 1975, two enthusiasts Steve Wozniak and Steve jobs met in the Amateur computer club Homebrew Computer Club.
At the first meeting of the club jobs and Wozniak were able to try the Altair 8800 — one of the first microcomputers based on the Intel chips. This has inspired future entrepreneurs in the creation of the Apple I — kit to build your own computer based on the display, motherboard. At the same time to be born future titans software for computers. Larry Ellison, Bob miner and ed Oates in 1977 he founded Oracle — the company-developer of solutions for working with databases.
In 1980, Apple Computer IPO. In Silicon valley, an influx of investors who wanted to invest in young and promising companies. Sand Hill Road is a street in Menlo Park on which is located the office of Kleiner Perkins. The area became the center of the world of venture capital. In 1982 Stanford graduates founded Sun Microsystems — a company to manufacture computers and software.
In 1984, former Dean of Stanford University Leonard Bosak and his wife sandy Lerner started a company Cisco, which has been developing network software. In the 90s the boom in computer companies followed the boom of Internet companies. At this time there are Google, Yahoo, eBay. Like its predecessors, all of them open in the garages of Silicon valley.
“The old guard” continues to grow — Intel, Sun, Silicon Graphics, huge open campuses. Office Sun, in which the company moved in 1998, is actually a former psychiatric hospital. However, the dotcom crisis undermined companies plans for rapid expansion. As a result, in 2001 Sun was bought by Oracle for $5.6 bn. Oracle later sold the campus of the absorbed company Facebook.
Mark Zuckerberg deliberately left the Sun logo on the reverse side of the Facebook sign at the entrance to the campus. According to him, this should motivate employees to constantly evolve, otherwise the company will suffer the fate of the Sun. In 2003, Google leased premises Silicon Graphics for their office. Later it the company has fully redeemed it. Today Apple, Facebook, Google and Yahoo continue to expand their campuses.